transitivity

Transitive reasoning distorts induction in causal chains

A probabilistic causal chain A-B-C may intuitively appear to be transitive: If A probabilistically causes B, and B probabilistically causes C, A probabilistically causes C. However, probabilistic causal relations can only guaranteed to be transitive …

How causal reasoning can bias empirical evidence

Theories of causal reasoning and learning often implicitly assume that the structural implications of causal models and empirical evidence are consistent. However, for probabilistic causal relations this may not be the case. We propose a causal …